IN FOCLÓIR GAEILGE—BÉARLA
an1, def. art. (gsf. & pl. na).(In nsf. and gsm. it lenites initial consonants b, c, f, g, m, p. Prefixes t- to initial vowel in nsm., and to initial s followed by a vowel or l, n, r in nsf., gsm. When preceded by prepositions ag, ar, faoi, le, ó, roimh, thar, trí, um eclipses (b, c, f, g, p) or lenites (b, c, f, g, m, p); lenites when preceded by de (> den), do (> don), i (> sa, san before fh vowel). Na in gsf. and npl. prefixes h, in gpl. n-, to vowels; in gpl. eclipses b, c, d, f, g, p, t) The. Some of the most common uses of the definite article are:1. (Particularizing) An fear, the man. An bhean bheag, the little woman. An seomra cúil, the back room. An bealach amach, the way out. An chéad uair, the first time. An lá cheana, the other day. An rud is fearr liom, the thing I prefer. 2. (Exclusive) An domhan, the world. An spéir, the sky. Na flaithis, heaven. 3. (Denoting class, species) An duine, man(kind). An pobal, the public, the congregation. An fhearthainn, (the) rain. Is breá an fear é, he is a fine man. Tá an bainne maith, milk is good. Tá an t-eallach daor, cattle are dear. Tá na tithe gann, houses are scarce. Tá sé trom ar na bróga, he is hard on shoes. Is fairsinge an fheoil ná an t-iasc, meat is more plentiful than fish. 4. (With nouns followed by demonstrative) An fear seo, this man. An bhean sin, that woman. 5. (With abstract nouns, in general reference) An grá, love. An ceol, music. An t-ocras, hunger. An tsláinte, health. An fhíodóireacht, weaving. An chaint, speech. 6. (With units of time) An lá agus an oíche, day and night. An Domhnach, Sunday. An t-earrach, spring. An Bhealtaine, May. An Nollaig, Christmas. I gceann na míosa, at the end of, after, a month. Nuair a tháinig an mhaidin, when morning came. 7. (With certain names of diseases) An slaghdán, the common cold. An fiabhras dearg, scarlet fever. An eitinn, tuberculosis. An bhruitíneach, measles. 8. (With partitive expressions) Cad é an tús a bhí air? How did it begin? Cá bhfuil an deireadh aige? Where does it end? Is fada an muineál atá air, he has got such a long neck. Briseann sé an croí ionam, it breaks my heart. 9. (Denoting plurality, intensity) Na céadta leabhar, hundreds of books. An iomad daoine, many persons. An iomarca cainte, too much talk. An uile lá, every day. Is é an díogha, an togha, an scoth, é, it is the worst, the choicest, the best. Is againn a bhí an lá! What a day we had! 10. (In vivid speech) Chonaic mé an fear romham, I saw (to my surprise) a man in front of me. Chuala mé an scread san oíche, I heard a (sudden) scream in the night. 11. (Distributive use) Pingin an ceann, a penny each. Scilling an chloch, a shilling per stone. Deoch an fear, a drink for each man. 12. (With names of languages) An Ghaeilge, an Béarla, an Laidin, an Eabhrais, Irish, English, Latin, Hebrew. 13. (With certain names of places) An Fhrainc, an Spáinn, an Ostair, an Eoraip, France, Spain, Austria, Europe. An tSionainn, an Life, the Shannon, the Liffey. An Mhí, an Mhucais, an Róimh, an Mheánmhuir, Meath, Muckish, Rome, the Mediterranean. (With g. of Éire, Albain, Gaillimh) Muintir na hÉireann, na hAlban, na Gaillimhe, the people of Ireland, of Scotland, of Galway. 14. (With titles) An tAthair Seán, Father Seán. An Ceannfort Ó Néill, Commandant O’Neill. An Breitheamh Ó Riain, Judge Ryan. An Cearrbhach Mac Cába, McCabe the card-player. 15. (With certain personal names and surnames) An Calbhach, an Feardorcha, Calvagh, Frederick. An Máilleach, an Búrcach, an Ruiséalach, Mr. O’Malley, Mr. Burke, Mr. Russell. Na Brianaigh, na Gearaltaigh, na Brúnaigh, the O’Briens, the Fitzgeralds, the Browns. 16. (In generalized name-phrases) An Choróin Mhuire, the Rosary. An Leabhar Eoin, St. John’s Gospel. An ghaoth Mhárta, the March wind. Tar éis na Féile Bríde, after the feast of St. Brigid. (Var: Eclipses when preceded by de, do, i (> sa); d, t eclipsed under same circumstances as b, c, etc.)
an2, interr. vb. part. (Eclipses; not used with past tense of regular vbs.) An dtagann sé? Does he come? An ólfaidh sé é? Will he drink it? An suífeá síos? Would you sit down?
an4 = fan1.
an5(with numerals) = a3.
an-6, hyphenated intensive pref. (Lenites initial consonants b, c, f, g, m, p) 1. (With a.) Very. Tá sé an-mhór, it is very big. Daoine an-bhreá iad, they are very fine people. 2. (With nouns) Great. An-chluiche, a great game. An-drochlá, a very bad day.
an-7, neg. & pej. pref. (Lenites initial consonants b, c, f, g, m, p) 1. In-, un-, not. 2. Bad, unnatural. 3. Over-, excessive.
IN FOCLÓIR GAEILGE—BÉARLA
An rud atá sé a scríobh, what he is writing.
An fear atáthar a dhaoradh, the man who is being condemned.
Chaill an t-éan a chleití, a eiteog, the bird lost its feathers, its wing.
Thréig an chaora a tréad, a huan, the sheep left its flock, its lamb.
An fear a chuireann síol, the man who sows seed.
An síol a chuireann sé, a chuirtear, the seed which he sows, which is sown.
An síol a cuireadh, a d’fhás, the seed which was sown, which grew.
An té a itheann feoil, the person who eats meat.
An fheoil a itear, the meat which is eaten.
An cat a d’ól an bainne, the cat which drank the milk.
An té a d’fhreagair mé, the person who answered me.
An lá a baisteadh é, the day he was baptized.
An gort a gcuirfidh sé an síol ann, the field in which he will sow the seed.
An teach a raibh sé ina chónaí ann, the house in which he lived.
An fear a bhfuil a mhac ag imeacht, the man whose son is going away.
An té a n-ólaim a shláinte, the person whose health I drink.
Cibé duine a mbeidh an t-ádh air, whoever is going to be lucky.
An bhfuair tú a raibh uait? Did you get all that you wanted?
~ an fhírinne, tell the truth.
~, abraimis, go bhfuil an ceart agat, assuming that you are right.
~ an dán sin dúinn, recite that poem for us.
Níl dada le rá leis ach an méid sin, there is nothing to be said to him, concerning him, but that.
An bhfuil aon fhocal agat le rá liom? (i) Have you anything to say to me? (ii) Have you anything to say against me?
Mar a dúirt Seán leis an asal, as Seán said about the donkey.
~ ag an obair, able for, equal to, the work.
An bealach ~ , the way home.
Chuaigh an buille ~ air, the blow took effect on him.
4. Ní raibh an teacht ~ ann, he had not the strength to recover.
Urchar an daill faoin ~, a shot in the dark.
Cuir uait an ~, stop playing like a child.
Cuir leis an ~ é, get rid of it.
Chuirfeadh sé thar an ~ tirim thú, he is free with his promises.
Ní i bhfad uaidh a chonaic sé an t-~, he had real cause for anxiety.
Ar an ~ sin, for that reason.
Ar an ~ go, for the reason that.
Ag caint ar an ~ seo, speaking on this subject.
Rinneamar ~ maith ar an iasc, we caught a fair amount of fish.
Bhí an bád ag imeacht ar a h~ féin, the boat was drifting.
An A~ Choisricthe, the Consecrated Host.
Ní den ~ an chéad snáithe, you must spoil before you spin.
Is beag an t-~ a bhí leis de bharr a lae ag iascach, he had little reward for his day's fishing.
Is mór an spórt é i mbaile gan ~, it is great sport for those who have nothing better to do.
Nach bhfuil leat ~ an leabhar seo? Have you brought nothing but this book?
Níl sé ~ ag rá nár thuig sé an cás, he is only saying that he didn’t understand the case.
Ní miste duit ~ an tsláinte a bheith agat, you needn’t care so long as you are in good health.
Bhí sé sásta ~ an leithscéal sin a ghabháil leis, he was satisfied when that excuse was offered to him.
~ ab é, ~ gurb é, an teas, but for the heat.
Is é an t-ainm a bhí air ~ Brian, Brian was his name.
Tá an buidéal lán ~ sa bheag, the bottle is practically full.
IN FOCLÓIR GAEILGE—BÉARLA
Fear ~, an able-bodied man.
Ná déan ~ ar sheanóir, don’t make fun of an old man.
~ trua, déirce, an object of pity, of charity.
Níl clúmh le bhur n-~, you haven’t an easy life.
Chuir sí a ceann in ~ an anró, she made an unfortunate marriage.
~ a thógáil de dhuine, to find an excuse for s.o., save s.o. from punishment.
Bhí an-oíche againn, we had an excellent night.
Tá buntáiste aige orm, he has an advantage over me.
Tá orlach aige orm, he is an inch taller than I am.
Tá uair againn lena dhéanamh, we have an hour in which to do it.
~ le leabhar, le scríbhinn, an appendix to a book, to a document.
Chonaic mé ag teacht é ~ cóta mór air, I saw him coming and he was wearing an overcoat.
~ a chur ar phíopa, to light a pipe with an ember.
Rinne tú ~, it was quite an achievement for you.
~ a chur ar dhuine, to accost s.o.; to start an argument with s.o.
~ a fháil ar rud, to get an opportune moment for sth.
~ a fháil ar rud, to get an opportunity to do sth.
Ní obair d’~ í, it is not (suitable) work for an inexperienced person, for a greenhorn.
~ ó neamh, as na flaithis, an angel from heaven.
Tá scéimh an aingil uirthi, she looks like an angel.
Ainmhí ~, an irrational animal.
Tá scéimh na hainglíochta uirthi, she looks like an angel.
Rud a chuaigh in ~, an overgrown thing.
Focal ~, an outrageous statement.
Duine, áit, ball, a ~t, to recognize a person, a place, an object.
Aithním gur múinteoir, gur Éireannach, é, I know him for a teacher, an Irishman.
~ scéil, eachtra, repetition of a story, recital of an adventure.
~ de chonradh, article of an agreement.
~ a scríobh do pháipéar, to write an article for a paper.
Tá orlach de ~ fós, there is an inch of it still sticking out.
~ a thabhairt ar namhaid, to attack an enemy.
Dá bhfaighinn ~ air, if I got an opening, a chance, to hit him.
~ ar aithrí a dhéanamh, an effort to repent.
~ aduaidh a tháinig an scéala, the news came from an unexpected quarter.
Duine ~ a dhéanfadh é, only an exceptional person would do it.
Tá sé in ~ a phósta; tá ~ a phósta aige, he is of an age to get married.
Faoi ~ de, within an ace of.
Tá sé ina ~ marbh eatarthu, neither of them has gained an advantage over the other.
Áit ~, an isolated place.
Ar meitheal, ar bhord fiosrúcháin, on a work-team, on an enquiry board.
Tá sé ina mháistir orthu, ina údarás ar an dlí, he is their master, an authority on law.
Tá buntáiste aige ort, he has an advantage over you.
Tá orlach, bliain, agat orm, you are an inch taller, a year older, than I am.
Duine, ainmhí, a thabhairt ar a ~onacha, to bring a person, an animal, under control.
~ mhara, an arm of the sea.
Níor dhóigh sé siúd an ~ riamh, that fellow ‘never burned the old milking-place’, never made an unwise move.
~ a chur, a dhéanamh, ar rud, to make an alteration in sth.
Onóir a bhaint, to gain an honour.
~eadh an tsúil as, he lost an eye.
Macalla a bhaint as na cnoic, to get an echo from the hills.